UMBILICAL AND VENTRAL HERNIAS
Umbilicus is a weak point of the abdominal wall and umbilical hernia is not rare.
In most cases it is small (1 to 3cm or 0.4 to 1.2 inches), but it can be painful.
In some cases umbilical hernias are large (10 cm or 4 inches and more) and in those cases a large part of intestine can be exteriorized under the skin, what entails the risk of intestinal incarceration and obstruction.
Therefore, surgical repair of umbilical hernias is recommended to prevent enlargement of the hernia and the risk of complications.
The repair of umbilical hernias can be performed by simple suture for very small hernias (one cm), but the risk of recurrence is high when the orifice is more than one cm and a patch is then recommended.
Open surgery by direct incision is indicated for small hernias treated by suture or by a patch. At the opposite, open surgery is also indicated for large hernias.
Laparoscopic placement of the patch is generally used for mid-sized hernias.
Ventral hernias are similar to umbilical hernia but are located a little bit upper, on the midline, between umbilicus and sternum.